Vyger Irish Genealogy

Our search to further our Eggleton, Surgeoner, Smiley & Gracey
ancestry in Ireland and around the world building new
family relationships in sharing what we have learnt.

 

 

 
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Ealdorman Shire Court official, acted as King's deputy and paid by the court
Earer Ploughman
Earth stopper Stopped up animal burrows - i.e. a fox's earth before the hunt
East India Man Employee of the East India Company - either commercially or militarily
Edge Toolmaker Maker of knives, scythes - cutting tools
Eggler / Egg Factor Egg / poultry dealer
Elephants Teeth Dealer Ivory dealer
Ellerman / Ellyman Sold lamp oil (oilman)
Elymaker Oil maker
Empresario 1) Showman  2) Land broker  3) Settlement scheme promoter
Engineman In charge of colliery winding machinery under the direction of the Bankman
Engine Smith Made parts for and repaired engines using the tools of a Smith - similar work to that of a Blacksmith.
Engine Tenter 1) Oversaw the operation of the steam engine driving factory machinery. 2) Operated woolen mill machinery stretching cloth whilst drying
Engine Turner Engraver who produced overlapping geometric (engine turned) patterns on such items as cigarette cases, ladies compacts etc
Enumerator Collected and recorded census data from households
Equerry Personal assistant in the Royal household - originally for the horses - still exists
Erite Heretic
Eremite Hermit
Esquire Knight's companion - the term later referred to a gentleman of standing
Estafette Mounted courier - from French
Eweherd Shepherd
Exchequer Revenue collector - Chancellor of the Exchequer is an important English Government post today, setting the National budget
Exciseman Tax collector
Expressman A Messenger.  He would collect and deliver letters, packages or parcels that needed quick service
Eyer Made the holes in sewing needles. Also called a Holer  
Faber Workman or Artisan
Factor 1) Agent transacting business for merchants 2) Sold goods on commission 3) (Scottish) Steward collecting land rents
Fagetter Firewood seller - made bundles of faggots
Faker Photographer's assistant - added hand colouring to monochrome photographs before colour film was invented
Fancy Man A pimp
Fancy Woman A prostitute
Fancy-pearl Worker Made items, such as buttons, from mother-of-pearl
Fanner Grain winnower
Fanwright Made or repaired fans or winnowing baskets
Farandman Travelling merchant
Farm Bailiff Made sure a tenant farmer ran the farm properly and was paying the rent on time. If not the bailiff had the authority to evict.
Farrier 1) A blacksmith who shoes horses 2) Horse Doctor 3) Cavalry NCO responsible for horses
Fawkner/ Faulkner Falconer
Fear-Nought Maker Made thick woollen material called fear-nought for protective clothing and lining insides the powder magazines of warships
Feather Beater/Driver/Dresser Cleaned feathers for sale
Feather Wife Woman who cleaned feathers for sale
Featherman Dealer in feathers
Feeder Herdsman
Feller Woodcutter
Fellmonger 1) Dealer in hides and skins , also recycled inedible animal parts for glue, fertiliser, offal, horn, bone, gut etc. Basically, he ran the "knacker's yard". More Info. 2) Tree cutter / woodsman
Fellowship Porter A kind of uniformed bonded messenger, vetted for honesty etc before admission to the Guild of Fellowship Porters, to whom they were accountable. You could trust your valuables to them for transport from your London office to another warehouse, shop or office
Felter Worked with felt - normally in the hat trade
Fender Smith Made and maintained fenders surrounding fires
Fent Dealer Dealer in "Fents" - cloth remnants, ends of bolts of cloth etc.
Feroner Ironmonger
Ferreter Made or dealt in "ferret" - silk tape
Ferur / Ferator Blacksmith / Farrier
Festitian Physician
Fettler 1) Cleaned mill machinery, removing accumulations of fibres, grease etc. and sharpened fustian cutters' knives 2) Needle maker who filed the points
Fever Blacksmith
Fewster Made wooden saddle trees – the “chassis” upon which a leather saddle is constructed
Fewterer Looked after the hounds used in hunting or hare coursing
Feydur (Feather) Beater Feather beater
Fiddler Used a fiddle (small knife) to remove the flashing from cast clay forms such as bowls, creamers, cups or pitchers.
Field Master 1) Inspected hedges and fences of a parish and also impounded stray animals 2) Tended fields set aside to produce hay. Also Hayward
File Cutter Made files by cutting rows of sharp teeth into a metal blank
Filler Filled bobbins in textile mills
Fine Drawer Invisible mender (clothing)
Fireworker 18c. Maker of fireworks. A very dangerous occupation - they often actually smoked when working with gunpowder!
Fire Beater Tended factory boilers
First Hand Silk weaver who owned his own loom. Early silk weaving was largely done in the home
Fiscere Fisherman - Anglo-Saxon term
Fish Fag Female fish seller
Fitter 1) Coal broker 2) Early term for a Joiner 3) From 19c. a skilled mechanic
Flagger Lays paving stones etc. also called a Paver or Paviour
Flagger & Tiler Laid roofing tiles and the rectangular stone flags used in some parts of the country for roofing
Flasher Specialist worker in glass making
Flatman / Floatman Boatman on a flat bottom boat (a flat) used in shallow waters (mainly rivers and canals) for transport. The term also came to refer to shallow-draft coastal sailing vessels.  More Info.
Flauner Confectioner
Flax Dresser Person who breaks and swingles flax, or prepares it for the spinner.
Flesher / Fleshmonger 1) Tannery worker  2) Butcher
Fleshewer Butcher
Fletcher Made arrows - from French, fl├Ęche
Floater Vagrant
Flowering Muslin Embroidery
Flusherman Cleaned out water pipes
Fly Coachman / Flyman 1) Drove a "fly" a one horse two wheeled light carriage 2) Flyman also a term for a theatre stage hand 3) A Fly Proprietor employed fly drivers and usually owned the flys.
Fly Proprietor
Flying Stationer Street broadsheet (newspaper) seller
Fogger / Pettifogger 1) Peddler. 2) Middleman in the nail and chain trade 3) Agricultural labourer who fed cattle 4) Low class lawyer or "Pettifogger"
Foister / Foisterer / Fuyster Joiner
Foot Maiden Female servant
Footman Male servant
Footpad Thief (mugger)
Foot-Post Mail carrier (on foot)
Foot Straightener Made watch and clock dials
Forester Looked after woods, normally on gentleman's estate, or major local forest
Forgeman / Forger 1) Blacksmith or his assistant 2) In 18c Derbyshire - Coachsmith
Forkner Falconer (phonetic)
Form Fitter Fitted "forms" for building. ie formwork for arch building.
Fossetmaker Made (wooden) taps for ale casks
Founder Foundryman - casts metal i.e. iron, brass
Fower Sweeper, street cleaner
Foyboatman A shore-based seaman who worked a "foy" to give assistance to vessels entering port - running lines from the ship to shore, towing small vessels etc. Foy is a corruption of fee, which was what the boatman charged
Frame Spinner Tended a machine for spinning cotton threads - a Spinning Frame - More Info
Framer Constructed the wooden frames of buildings, also in chair making
Framework Knitter Operated a hosiery making loom (Abbreviated FWK in census returns) More Info.
(FWK)
Freedman A freed slave
Freeholder Land owner
Freeman Held the full rights of citizenship, such as voting and engaging in business, free of feudal service - a man who had served his apprenticeship and who could then work at his trade in his own right
Freemason Stone mason
Frieser Made rough plaster known as friese
Freshwaterman Sailed on inland or coastal waters
Fringemaker Made ornamental borders or fringes in cloth making
Fripperer Bought and sold old clothes and fripperies
Friseur Hairdresser
Frobisher / Furbisher Cleaned and polished metal – i.e. armour
Fruitestere Female fruit seller
Fulker Pawnbroker
Fuller / Tucker / Walker One who "fulls" cloth; the process of cleaning (removing the natural oils and lanolin) wool in preparation for spinning and weaving, using fuller's earth. In medieval times, this involved treading the cloth in stale urine for some 8 hours.
Fumigator During the great plague, Fumigators were employed to disinfect houses by burning sulphur, saltpetre and urine. Presumably the smell would kill the germs!
Funambulist Tightrope walker
Furner Baker
Furrier Fur dealer - as today
Fustian Cutter / Weaver A person who lifted and cut the threads in the making of Fustian, formerly a kind of coarse cloth made of cotton and flax. Now a thick, twilled cotton cloth with a short pile or nap, a kind of cotton velvet. A long thin knife was inserted into the loops and the threads cut as it was pulled through, stretched between rollers. The cloth was then brushed to raise the pile. Fustian is the old name for corduroy / A weaver of Fustian
Fustian Loom Jobber Otherwise known as a Tackler, he serviced and maintained the Fustian looms
Gabeler Tax collector
Gaffer 1) Foreman 2) Elderly man
Gaffman Bailiff
Gager / Gauger Collector of alcohol taxes. Measured capacity of barrels to calculate the duty
Gamester 1) Gambler 2) Prostitute
Ganger / Gangsman Overseer / foreman - from mid 18c.
Ganneker Innkeeper
Garthman 1) Fisherman using fish traps 2) Yardman or herdsman 3) Maintained a "garth" or dam on the river for catching fish
Gas Maker Made gas by heating coal to produce gas, which was purified to remove the tar. The coal would be turned into coke. The gas could be used for lighting, heating or powering a gas engine. The tar was used in road surfacing.
Gas Manager In charge of detecting dangerous gases in mines
Gasser See Cotton Yarn Gasser
Gater Watchman
Gatherer Glassworker. Inserted the blow iron into molten glass ready for the blower
Gatherer's Boy Assistant who shielded the gatherer's face from the furnace with a shovel
Gatward Goatkeeper
Gaunter Glove maker
Gaveller 1) In the Forest of Dean - Crown officer granting "gales" - the right to work a mine 2) In Suffolk - Female (usually) harvest worker 3) Usurer
Gelder Animal castrator
GP / General Practitioner Local medical doctor, a term used today.  More Info.
Gentleman Gentry; Aristocrat, whose income came from his land
Gentry Families of hereditary rank - the baronets and knights in England
Geometer Person skilled in geometry
Gerund Grinder Latin Tutor
Gigger Operated a gigging machine - a machine for dressing woollen cloth by subjecting it to the action of teasels.
Gilder Applied gold leaf for decoration
Gimler Made gimp - a kind of card
Ginour Engineer
Ginny / Jenny/ Jenney Tenter Minded a Ginny - a stationary engine used in coal mining to haul coal to the surface
Girdler Made leather belts & girdles, mainly for the army
Glass Coachman Drove a two horse carriage for hire
Glazier / Glassman 1) Window glass man / glass cutter 2) Seller of glassware
Glover Glove maker / seller
Goaler A keeper of the goal, a jailer
Goat Carriageman Driver of a small carriage
Goldsmith 1) Banker  2) Worker in gold
Gong Farmer / Emptied cesspits, ashpits and outside toilets - "middins" - usually required to work from 9pm to 5am. See also Night Soilman
Gong Scourer
Gooseherd Tended geese
Gorseman Sold gorse and broom, largely for making brooms
Grace Wife Midwife
Graffer Notary or scrivener
Grainer Painted wood grain effect
Granger Farmer
Graver 1) Engraver 2) Carver or Sculptor 3) Worker in a ship graving dock, cleaning and repairing ships hulls
Grazier A person who pastures and raises cattle
Greenwich Hospital Pensioner A long-serving ex Royal Navy man, awarded an out-pension for age, wounds or incapacity
Grieve / Greave Bailiff, Sheriff, Foreman
Greengrocer Sells fresh fruit and vegetables
Greensmith Worker in copper - coppersmith
Greenwich Barber Sold sand from the Greenwich pits
Grey Cloth Dealer Dealer in Grey Cloth - the unfinished product of the looms before bleaching, dyeing or printing. The term is still used in the trade.
Grimbribber Lawyer
Grinder 1) Used a grinding machine, mainly for knife and scissor sharpening, which was commonly done door-to-door 2) Maintained a carding machine in textile mills 3) Tutor
Groover Miner
Groundsel & Chickweed Seller Street seller of weeds to feed songbirds
Guinea Pig Roving (freelance) person, whose usual fee was a guinea (One pound, one shilling)
Gummer Re-cut old saws, sharpening and improving depth of cut
Gun Stocker Carves gun stocks from wood and fits them to the metal parts of the gun
Gyp College servant to undergraduates
Haberdasher Seller of clothing and accoutrements
Hacker 1) Woodcutter 2) Maker and/or user of hoes or other cutting tools
Hackler / Heckler / Hackman / Hatcheler Combed or "carded" the coarse flax, using a hackle - a toothed implement - in linen making.
Hackney Man Horse drawn Cab/Taxi driver - Taxis were originally called Hackney Cabs
Haft Presser Employed in the Sheffield cutlery industry pressing bone/horn into knife handles (hafts). 19c.
Hairweaver / Hairman Weaver of horsehair cloth
Halberd Carrier / Halberdier Soldier who was armed with a halberd - a combined spear and axe
Half Timer Child who spent half the day at school and half in the mills
Hammerman Smith, hammerman
Handseller Street Vendor
Handwoman Midwife or female attendant
Harlot 1) Vagabond, beggar, rogue 2) 14c male servant / attendant 3) 15c Prostitute
Harmer Beck Constable
Harper Harp player
Hatter Hat maker / seller  More Info.
Hawker / Huckster Peddler or street seller. Itinerant street dealer who carried his wares with him. Often used as a term of abuse.
Haymonger Dealer in hay
Hayward 1) Inspected hedges and fences of a parish and also impounded stray animals 2) Tended fields set aside to produce hay Also Field Master
Headsman Executioner
Headswoman Midwife
Heald Knitter Made hand knitted textile 'healds' through which the warp threads on a loom ran so that they could alternately be raised and lowered for the shuttle to pass through with the weft thread. More Info.
Heald/Heddle or Yell Manufacturer Manufacturer of Healds, used on looms. The warp yarns are passed through loops known as Healds, which raise and lower the yarns after the shuttle has passed the weft across the width of the loom
Heck Maker Made spinning machine guides for guiding yarn onto reels
Hedge Looker Oversaw maintenance of hedges and enclosures. Also see Field Master & Hayward
Hedger Hedge Trimmer and maker of "grown" hedges - a skilled art
Heelmaker Made shoe heels
Hellier / Hillier Roof tiler or Slater
Hempheckler See Hackler
Henchman / Hensman / Hinxman 1) Squire or page of honour 2) Groom, horseman 3) Chief attendant to a Highland chief
Henter Thief
Hewer Mine face worker - hewed or cut the coal
Higgler Itinerant peddler. A lot of the Higgler's trade involved barter, rather than money changing hands and the name derives from the resultant haggling.
High Sheriff The highest ranking sheriff
Highwayman Robber, usually mounted, who preyed on travellers on public highways
Hillier Roof tiler
Hillman / Hillsman A man who worked at the pithead; a colliery official, late 17th-early 20th century (Scottish)
Hind 1) Domestic servant 2) A skilled farm labourer (Scotland)
Hobbler / Hobler 1) Towed river or canal boats 2) Casual dock labourer 3) Unlicensed pilot.  More Info.
Hodsman Mason's assistant - carried the "Hod" in which materials were carried
Hoggard Pig drover
Holer Made the holes in sewing needles. Also called an Eyer
Holder up 1) Rivetter's Mate - whilst the red hot rivet head was formed by the rivetter, he would hold a heavy hammer or dolly against the other end of the rivet.
2) Assistant to a forger of chains or shackles by holding up the work.
3) Machinist's assistant, holding up work to the various machines.
Hoofer A dancer
Hooker 1) 16c. Reaper 2) 19c. Textile mill worker operating machinery which laid out fabric in uniform folds to required length
Hooper / Hoop shaver Made hoops for casks and barrels
Horner Made horn cutlery handles, combs
Horse Courser Owner of racing horses
Horse Knave Groom
Horse Leech Farrier, veterinarian
Horse Marine Towed canal barges where horses could not be used
Horse Capper Dealer in worthless horses
Horse-hair Curler Prepared horse hair for upholstery stuffing
Hosier Retailer of hosiery - socks, stockings, gloves etc.
Hosteller / Hostelier Innkeeper
Hostler 1) Stableman, groom 2) repairer of railway engines
Hotpresser Worked in textile or paper mills, pressing product between hot glazing sheets to smooth and glaze it
House Joiner Made the wooden frames of houses
House Wright House builder
Howdy Wife Midwife
Hoyman Used a "hoy" - a small coastal vessel - to transport passengers and goods
Huckster 1) Street seller of ale, often a woman 2) Retailer of small wares in shop or booth
Huissher Usher or door attendant
Hurdleman / Hurdler Made wattle fencing "hurdles"
Hurriers Usually girls from the age of 5, employed hauling coal underground
Husband-Man / Husbandman 1) Tenant farmer 2) Farmer dealing with animals (14th century From the Anglo-Saxon husbonda)
Hush Shopkeeper Unlicensed beer brewer and seller


 

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