Vyger Irish Genealogy

Our search to further our Eggleton, Surgeoner, Smiley & Gracey
ancestry in Ireland and around the world building new
family relationships in sharing what we have learnt.

 

 

 
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Cab Driver / Cabbie / Cabman Driver of a horse-drawn passenger vehicle for hire. The first two are still in current use for a taxi driver
Cad Fed and watered horses at coaching inns
Caddie Messenger or errand boy
Caddy Butcher Butcher dealing in horse meat
Cadger 1) Beggar 2) Medieval hawk carrier. Attended hawking party, carrying hawks perched on a square frame around his waist and slung from his shoulders. Origin of 'cadge a lift'
Cafender Carpenter
Caffeler / Caffler Rag & Bone man
Cainer Walking stick maker
Caird Tinker
Calciner Made powdered lime from burning bones
Calender A person who listed documents (filing?)
Calenderer / Calenderman "Calender" operator. A machine used to press and finish fabrics or paper between rollers. More Info. More Info.
Calico Printer Dyed, coloured and printed calico
Cambist / Cambrist 1) Dealer in bills of exchange - financial expert. 2) Banker
Cambric Maker Made cambric, a fine cotton or linen fabric
Camerist Lady's maid
Camister Minister of the cloth
Camlet Merchant Sold "camlet" - cloth used in making petticoats and cloaks
Canal Puddler During canal construction, 'puddled' a layer of clay on the sides and bottom of the canal to waterproof it
Cannaller Canal boat worker
Cancellarius Chancellor - from Latin
Candler Candle maker
Caner / Chair Bottomer Made woven cane chair seats
Canter / Cantor 1) Beggar 2) Religious speaker, chanter
Canting Caller Auctioneer
Canvaser Canvas maker
Caper / Capper Cap maker
Capillaire Maker Made orange flavoured syrup
Capitalist Investor, providing capital for commerce
Cardroomer Worker in the carding room of cotton/woollen mills
Carder Carded (combed - a skilled job) wool or cotton More Info.
Card Maker 1) Made the combs and implements for carding (combing) wool
2) Made the loom-cards used by Jacquard looms in the weaving of figured fabrics
Carman / Charman / Carrier Driver of (horse-drawn) vehicles for transporting goods. Carmen were often employed by railway companies for local deliveries and collections of goods and parcels. Modern day van driver. Also sometimes someone who drove horse-drawn trams was called a Carman.
Carter/Cartman
Card Nailer / Nailorer Maintained the teeth (nails) on the carding machine used on wool & cotton before weaving
Carnifex Butcher
Carpentarius Carpenter - from Latin
Carter Carrier of goods by wagon
Cart Wheeler Cart wheel maker
Cartographer Mapmaker - as today
Cartomancer Fortune teller using cards
Cartwright Made carts and wagons
Case Hardener Heat treats steel to harden its surface
Cashmarie Fish seller - usually in inland markets
Caster / Castorer Made small bottles for sprinkling salt, pepper, sugar etc.
Castrator / Gelder Castrated farm animals
Catagman Cottager (phonetic)
Catchpole / Catchpoller Bailiff or Sheriff's assistant
Catechist Religious teacher - from catechism
Cattle Jobber Bought and sold cattle
Caulker Filled up cracks in ships, casks, windows or seams to make them watertight by using tar or oakum hemp fibre produced by taking old ropes apart
Ceiler Installed ceilings
Cellarman As today, looked after beer & spirits & its dispensing equipment in pubs or warehouses
Cemmer Hand combed yarn prior to weaving
Ceramist A craftsman who shapes pottery on a potter's wheel and bakes it in a kiln
Chaff Cutter Cut straw to make chaff
Chafferer Dealer in chaff
Chairman One of two persons who carried a sedan chair
Chair bodger Travelling chair repairer
Chaise Driver Drove a chaise - a two-wheeled open horse-drawn carriage for one or two persons
Chaisemaker Carriage or cart maker
Chaloner 1) Dealer in Shalloon – a fabric from Chalons in France 2) Blanket maker. Chalon or Shalloon - a woollen blanket or coverlet for a bed (from its original place of manufacture, Chalons-sur-Marne, in France)
Chamberlain Steward in charge of administration of the household of royalty or nobility. One of the four main officers of the court, he controlled access to the King
Chamber Master Shoemaker working from home or selling to the public
Chandler 1) Dealer or trader 2) Maker or seller of candles 3) Retailer of groceries - esp. to ships
Chanty Man The leader in singing sea shanties aboard ship
Chapeler Hat maker and seller - from French "chapeau"
Chapman / Copeman / Ceapman 1) 13c - 16c Itinerate Trader/Peddler. 2) Merchant - in the 17/18c, before the advent of factories, a Chapman would invest in the raw materials of the cotton, woolen or silk trade, put out the work to spinners and weavers at home on piece-rates, and sell the product for profit - the term later became used for an itinerant peddler of goods in the 19c
Charcoal Burner Made charcoal from burning, usually on the site of felling the trees
Chartmaster Negotiated mining contracts and supplied the labour
Charwoman A woman hired by the day to do odd jobs, usually cleaning, in a house - as still used today and in use as early as 1596. The word "chare" or "char" was used to describe an odd job
Chaser An engraver
Chatelaine Mistress of the house
Chaunter Street entertainer (singer)
Cheese Factor / Monger  Cheeseman Cheese dealer
Check Weaver A weaver who used a loom that used more than one shuttle, each of which had a different coloured bobbin in order to produce checked cloth.
Chevener Embroidered fine silk stockings, popular with the Victorians.
Chiffonnier Wig maker
Chimney Sweep Chimney cleaner
Chinglor Tiled roofs with wooden shingles (shingler)
Chippy Carpenter - esp. Ship's carpenter or shipwright
Chirugeon / Chirurgeon Apothecary or surgeon
Chowder Fishmonger
Chronologist Recorder of important historical events
Cinder Wench Female who collected cinders from factories for sale door to door
City Meter Weights and Measures inspector's assistant, checking both the weights of goods as sold and the accuracy of the metal weights used. Some specialised - such as in Coal Meters, etc.
Claker Magician / Astrologer
Clapman Town Crier
Classman Unemployed labourer
Claviger Servant
Clay carrier Assistant to the shot firer in the pits
Clay Puddler Made the waterproof clay lining used on canals and dams. Mixing water with clay, they worked it with their feet until it became smooth and waterproof.
Clayman / Cleyman 1) Prepared clay for brick making  2) Rendered buildings with clay to waterproof them
Clericus Clerk - from Latin
Clerk Medieval clergyman or cleric
Clergyman without cure of Souls A clergyman without his own parish (without cure - care - of souls). Getting a Parish with sufficient income when there were more Clergy than Parishes wasn't always possible
Clicker 1) Foreman printer who looked after the typography and layout; 2) Shoe-maker who cut out the leather for making the uppers. 3) The servant of a salesman who stood at the door to invite in customers   More Info.
Clipper/ on/off Attached coal carts to the line hauling them from the coal face to the lifts
Clod Hopper Ploughman
Clogger 1) Made wooden shoes "clogs" - in England they were usually leather with thick wooden soles More Info 2) In the Cheshire salt mines, inserted ribs in the base of a salt tub which supported the raised perforated base plate, thereby facilitating drainage
Cloth Lapper Moved the yarn from the carding machine to the next process in weaving
Cloth Linter or Picker Removed surplus thread and lint from the finished woven cloth
Cloth Looker An inspector of finished woven cloth. Also remedied slight defects and applied 'padding' to remove oil spots
Clothier / Clothesman / Clothman Made or sold clothing
Clouter / Clower 1) Nail maker 2) Shoe maker
Club Collector The "Club Man" called door to door on a weekly basis to collect payments for clothing, burial or Christmas Clubs
Coal Backer Carried coal from barges to the coal wagons - on their backs.
Coal Burner Charcoal maker
Coal Dealer / Merchant Dealer and seller of coal - mainly to domestic customers. Still used today
Coal Drawer Moved coal carts in the mine
Coal Heaver Unloaded coalmine carts on the surface
Coalman / Coal Higgler Sold coal to householders, usually by horse & cart
Coalmeter Measured the coal
Coal Runner Attended coal carts in the mines
Coal Whipper Unloaded coal from ships using baskets
Coast Waiter/Surveyor Customs Official attending unloading of ships
Cobbler Shoemaker/repairer - as today
Cobbleman Fisherman using a cobble - flat bottom boat
Cockfeeder Looked after fighting cocks
Cocus Cook - from Latin
Cod Placer Placed fireproof containers, holding pottery being fired, into the kiln
Cohen Priest
Coiner Mint employee making coins
Coke Drawer Drew the finshed coke from the retort in which coal was heated to produce coke.
Collier Coal mine worker or coal barge worker. Term still used today
Colonus Farmer or husbandman - from Latin
Colour Man 1) Mixed textile dyes  2) House painter's assistant
Colourator / Colorator Worked with dyes
Colporteur Peddler of religious books
Colt Worker who has not served an apprenticeship. Particularly applied to women and children in the knitting trade during the 1811-1812 Luddite troubles
Comber / Combere Combed wool or cotton
Comb Maker Comb maker for 1) textile industry  2) hair
Commissionaire Uniformed doorman at an hotel, theatre, etc. Member of the Corps of Commissionaires, a 3,500 strong team of professionals including many drawn from the military, police and emergency services - still in use (in 2002)
Commission Agent Salesman who derives his income solely from commission on sales
Compositor Set type for printing - as today, but now giving way to the computer
Computer A person employed in computation of accounts, data etc.
Conder / Conner 1) Gave steering instructions to helmsman  2) Directed inshore fisherman towards fish shoals from ashore  3) Conner - Inspector or tester
Coney Catcher Rabbit catcher
Confinement Nurse An attending woman during the first month after childbirth. Also known as 'Monthly Nurse'. May also have the initials S.M.S. (Subsidiary Medical Services. i.e. not a doctor, but trained in some
way )
Cooper / Cuper Made or repaired vessels made of wooden staves & hoops, such as casks, barrels, tubs, etc.
Cop Fitter Fitted "cops" to the looms. A cop is a cone onto which the yarn is wound after spinning, ready for weaving on the loom
Copeman 1) Dealer in stolen goods 2) Dishonest horse dealer
Coppice Dealer Woodsman supplying coppice wood to local craftsmen. More Info. More Info.
Coprolite Digger Coprolite is fossilised animal dung and was found in Cambridgeshire, between Soham and Royston, and mined out between 1850 and 1890. Ground down and treated with acid, it made an excellent fertiliser.
Coracle Maker Made small round wicker and fabric inshore boats called Coracles
Cordwainer / Cordiner / Corviner / Corvisor Shoemaker. Originally, a leather worker using high quality Cordovan leather from Spain for such things as harness, gloves and riding boots. By the 19c it had reduced to a shoemaker - as distinct from a cobbler, who repaired shoes  More Info.   More Info.
Corn Chandler Corn Merchant
Corn Factor Middleman in corn dealing
Corn Meter Official who weighed and weighed the corn at market
Cornet The lowest commissioned rank in a cavalry regiment, who carried the colours
Corver Made baskets ,known as Corves, used in coal mining
Costermonger / Coster Wife 1)  Peddler of fruits and vegetables  2) Ditto, female
Cotiler / Coteler / Cotyler Cutler - maker or dealer in cutlery
Cottager / Cottar / Cotter / Cottier Agricultural labourer, living in a landowner's farm cottage
Cotton Baller Wound cotton thread into balls on a special balling machine. These were used in 'Ball Warping', the oldest system of warping, not much used today.
Cotton Dresser Operator who assembled the yarns or threads prior to weaving of cloth
Cotton Feeder Was employed feeding the cotton into a carding machine, which roughly straightened the fibres prior to spinning  More Info.
Cotton Rover Loaded cotton yarn onto bobbins, giving the yarn a twist, (Roving) after the Carding and Combing processes.
Cotton Singer (Meaning singe-er) Tends a machine that singes the nap or lint from cloth  More Info.
Cotton Yarn Gasser 1) A person who worked in the "gas-room" where raw cotton was de-fumigated 2) A person who applied gas to finished cotton threads to smooth them
Coucher Worker in the paper mills
Countour Collected rates
Couper Buyer and seller, usually of livestock
Couranteer Journalist - from French
Court Factor Dealer in Courts - small carts
Court Roller In charge of the rolls and records of the court
Court Toolmaker Made the tools for making Courts - small carts
Courtier Owner/driver of Courts - small carts
Cow Leech Animal Doctor
Coxwain Helmsman of a ship or boat - still in use
Crier 1) Town Crier 2) Auctioneer 3) Law court officer
Crimper Member of a Navy press gang
Crocker Potter
Crofter 1) Tenant farmer of a croft - small piece of land - still in use 2) Also connected with bleaching of textiles - see Crofters
Croft Bleacher Worked bleaching cloth prior to dyeing and spreading it out in enclosed fields, or "crofts" See Crofters
Cropper 1) Tenant farmer who was paid with a share of the crop 2) Also known as a shearman, a skilled textile worker who sheared the nap from the cloth
Crowner Coroner
Cuhreur Courier - French
Cupper Worked in the potteries, making cups
Curer Tobacco Curer
Curretter Broker
Currier 1) Dressed the coat of a horse with a curry comb 2) Tanned leather by incorporating oil or grease
Customer Customs tax collector
Cutler Knife maker/seller/sharpener
Daguerreotype Artist Early photographer - derived from Daguerre's method
Damster Dam builder - for logging
Danter Female overseer in silk winding room
Dateler/Dataller/Day Man/ Daytaleman/Day Labourer Casual worker, employed on a daily basis
Deal Porter A specialistworker in the docks - mainly London, handling baulks of softwood or "deal" between ship and shore.
Deathsman Executioner - very popular!
Decimer / Dozener Elected by householders in a street to represent them at the Court Leet
Decoyman Decoyed wild fowl, animals, into a trap or within shooting range
Decretist Knowledgeable in decrees (decretals)
Deemer/Deemster/ Judge
Dempster/Demster
Delaine Weaver Made delaine, a light all-wool cloth of plain weave, usually printed. From the French laine, meaning wool. De laine - 'from wool'
Delfman Sold "Delf", which is earthenware from Delft, Holland. 
Delfsman / Delphman Worker in quarries or open pits, usually quarrying stone
Delver Ditch digger - also a worker in a stone quarry.
Dental Mechanic Made false teeth - a very skilled job (Mechanic meant a craftsman or artisan)
Depater Refined precious metals
Deputy Pit workers' safety officer
Devil Printer's errand boy
Deviller Operated a "devil" - a machine that tore rags in the textile industry
Dexter Dyer
Dey Wife Female dairy worker
Die Sinker When forging metals, lays out, machines, and finishes impression cavities in die blocks to produce forging dies, following blueprints and applying knowledge of die sinking
Digger 1) Coal face worker 2) Day labourer in slate of stone quarries
Dikeman / Dykeman Ditch digger or hedger
Dipper Glazed goods in the pottery
Disher / Dish Thrower Made bowls and dishes from clay
Dish Turner Made wooden bowls and dishes on a lathe
Distributor Parish official who attended to the secular needs of inmates of the poorhouse / workhouse
Docker / Dock Walloper Stevedore, dock worker who loads and unloads cargo
Dock Foyboatman A shore-based seaman who worked a "foy" to give assistance to vessels entering port - running lines from the ship to shore, towing small vessels etc. Foy is a corruption of fee, which was what the boatman charged
Dockmaster In charge of a dockyard
Doffer Worked in the spinning mills, replenishing the empty bobbins on the looms.  More Info.
Dog Breaker Dog trainer
Dog Killer Employed by the parish to round up and kill stray dogs
Dog Leech Veterinarian
Dog-Whipper Drove dogs away from the church. The dogs would be attracted by the custom of nailing fox tails to the church door as proof for collecting bounty on them
Domesman Judge
Donkey Man/Boy Passenger carriage driver
Dorcas Seamstress
Doubler Operated a machine twisting yarn in cotton/woolen mills. The yarn on different bobbins is combined onto another bobbin
Dowser / Diviner Finds water using a rod or witching stick
Dragman Fisherman who dragged a net along the sea bed (trawling)
Dragoman Interpreter for Turkish or Arabic
Dragoon Cavalryman
Dragsman Public transport/hire coach/carriage driver
Drainer Dug drains
Draper Dealer in fabrics and sewing goods - in use today. From the French "drap-de-Berry", a woollen cloth coming from Berry in France
Drapery Painter Second-rate painters employed painting the clothes (drapery) onto a painter's subject
Drawboy Weavers assistant - sat on the looms to lift the heavy warps
Drawer 1) Made wire by drawing the metal through a die 2) Raised the coal up the mineshaft
Drayman Drove a long strong cart without fixed sides for carrying heavy loads, such as beer kegs
Dredgerman 1) Collected flotsam from the Thames for sale 2) Oyster fisherman
Dresser 1) A surgeon's assistant in a hospital  2) Operator who assembled the yarns or threads prior to weaving of cloth 3) Assistant to a noble person, preparing clothes etc. 4) In an Iron Foundry,  the person who removed the flash and unwanted bits from castings
Dressing Machine Maker Sewing machine maker
Drift Maker Made fishermen's drift nets
Drillman Agricultural worker who operated a seed drill
Dripping Man Dealer in dripping - fat from cooking meat
Driver Literally, a slave driver
Drover Drove cattle, sheep, etc. to market; a dealer in cattle
Drugger Pharmacist
Drum Battledore Maker Made galvanized drums with battledores (bat-shaped paddles), used as washing machines
Drummer Travelling salesman (drumming up business)
Dry Salter 1) Dealt in dried meat, sauces, pickles 2) Dealt in dyes for fabrics etc.
Dry Stone Waller / Builds walls with stones from the fields. The art involves no mortar or cutting, but the ability to see where the stones should fit. Served the dual purpose of disposing of the stones from the fields and building the boundary walls
Dry Stane Dyker (Scottish)
Dubber Cloth dubber - raised the nap of cloth
Duffer Peddler of cheap goods
Dyer Fabric dyer
Dykeman Hedger or Ditcher
Dyker (Scottish) Stonemason


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